Przywizanie w okresie niemowlcym i stres rodzicielski a problemy emocjonalne i zaburzenia zachowania u dzieci w wieku 3 lat

Anne Tharner, Maartje P.C.M. Luijk, Marinus H. van IJzendoorn, Marian J. Bakermans-Kranenberg, Vincent W. V. Jaddoe, Albert Hofman, Frank C. Verhulst, Henning Tiemeier

Abstrakt


Cel. Analiza wp??ywu typu przywizania w okresie niemowlcym oraz stresu rodzicielskiego na problemy emocjonalne i zaburzenia zachowania u ma??ych dzieci. Plan badania. Badana pr??ba obejmowa??a 606 diad niemowl?matka, kt??re wzi??y udzia?? w populacyjnym badaniu kohortowym, przeprowadzonym w Holandii. Przywizanie (wi?? dziecko?matka) oceniano przy u??yciu procedury sytuacji obcej (Strange Situation), gdy dzieci mia??y 14 miesicy. Kiedy dzieci osign??y wiek 18 miesicy, zmierzono poziom stresu rodzicielskiego przy u??yciu holenderskiej wersji Skali stresu rodzicielskiego (Parenting Stress Index). Wreszcie, gdy dzieci mia??y 3 lata, ich matki i ojcowie wype??niali List zachowa?? dziecicych (Child Behavior Checklist). Wyniki. Przywizanie w okresie niemowlcym os??abia??o wp??yw stresu rodzicielskiego na problemy emocjonalne i zaburzenia zachowania u dzieci. Stres rodzicielski by?? powizany z wy??szym poziomem zachowa?? agresywnych i zaburze?? uwagi u dzieci z pozabezpiecznym stylem przywizania, ale nie u tych z bezpiecznym stylem. Ponadto wy??szy poziom stresu rodzicielskiego wiza?? si z wiksz liczb problematycznych zachowa?? wycofanych u dzieci z pozabezpiecznym stylem przywizania, zw??aszcza tych z ambiwalentnym stylem i przywizaniem zdezorganizowanym. Wnioski. U dzieci z pozabezpiecznym stylem wy??szy poziom stresu rodzicielskiego jest powizany z wiksz czsto??ci wystpowania problematycznych zachowa?? wycofanych (zaburze?? internalizacyjnych) oraz zachowa?? agresywnych i zaburze?? uwagi (zaburze?? eksternalizacyjnych). Bezpieczny styl przywizania w okresie niemowlcym jest buforem os??abiajcym wp??yw stresu rodzicielskiego na problemy emocjonalne i zaburzenia zachowania u dzieci.

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