Przywiązanie a mózg – wzorce przywiązania u dorosłych a reakcje ciała migdałowatego i reakcje behawioralne na płacz niemowlęcy

Madelon M. E. Riem, Marian J. Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marinus H. van IJzendoorn, Dorothée Out, Serge A.R.B. Rombouts


Ostatnie badania wykazały, że reprezentacje (wzorce) przywiązania u dorosłych wpływają na ich reakcje neuronalne, emocjonalne i behawioralne na płacz niemowlęcy, tym samym potwierdzając trafność narzędzia Berkeley Adult Attachment Interview (wywiadu mierzącego style przywiązania u dorosłych) przy użyciu neuroobrazowania metodą czynnościowego rezonansu magnetycznego. W niniejszym badaniu analizowano aktywację ciała migdałowatego, poczucie rozdrażnienia oraz użycie nadmiernej siły (której wskaźnikiem była siła chwytu mierzona dynamometrem) podczas ekspozycji na płacz niemowlęcy i zakodowane dźwięki kontrolne u 21 bezdzietnych kobiet. U badanych z pozabezpiecznym wzorcem przywiązania aktywacja ciała migdałowatego w reakcji na płacz niemowlęcia była silniejsza niż u badanych z przywiązaniem bezpiecznym. Ponadto słysząc płacz dziecka, kobiety z pozabezpiecznym wzorcem przywiązania odczuwały silniejsze rozdrażnienie i były skłonniejsze do używania nadmiernej siły niż badane z bezpiecznymi reprezentacjami przywiązania. Nadaktywność ciała migdałowatego może być jednym z mechanizmów leżących u podstaw negatywnych emocji doświadczanych przez osoby z przywiązaniem pozabezpiecznym w reakcji na płacz niemowlęcy. Może też wyjaśniać, dlaczego rodzice z pozabezpiecznym modelem przywiązania reagują na sygnały wysyłane przez dziecko w sposób niespójny albo odrzucają zachowania przywiązaniowe swoich dzieci.

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