Elementy obiecujących praktyk w programach wsparcia dla ojców: oparte na dowodach wyniki badań inicjatyw skierowanych do ojców

Jacinta Bronte-Tinkew, Mary Burkhauser, Allison J. R. Metz


W ciągu ostatnich dwóch dekad można odnotować rosnące zainteresowanie społeczne i badawcze rolą ojca, połączone z promowaniem odpowiedzialnego ojcostwa w rodzinach i społecznościach. Doprowadziło ono do pojawienia się coraz większej liczby inicjatyw skierowanych do ojców. Chociaż istnieje wiele programów wspierania ojcostwa, często różnią się między sobą pod względem celów, grupy docelowej, zaplanowania, stosowanych metod i ewaluacji. Niniejszy artykuł stanowi przegląd kluczowych wyników programów wsparcia dla ojców, poddanych ewaluacji opartej o rygorystyczną metodologię (np. przy zastosowaniu losowo dobranych grup kontrolnych) w celu znalezienia odpowiedzi na pytanie „co działa” w programach dla ojców. Starając się osiągnąć ten cel, identyfikujemy elementy obiecujących praktyk w programach uznanych za skuteczne. Przedstawiamy również konkluzje płynące z ostatnich badań w odniesieniu do efektywności programów wsparcia dla ojców.

Pełny tekst:



Abidin, R. (1983). Parenting Stress Index. Charlottesville: Pediatric Psychology Press. Ahrons, C. R. (1981). The continuing coparental relationship between divorced spouses. The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 51, 415–428.

Anda, R. F., Felitti, V. J., Chapman, D., Croft, J. B., Williamson, D. F., Santelli, J., Dietz, P. M., Marks, J. S. (2001). Abused boys, battered mothers, and male involvement in teen pregnancy. Pediatrics, 107(2), E19.

Bavolek, S. (1984). Adult-Adolescent Parenting Inventory (AAPI). Park City: Family Development Resources.

Bavolek, S. J., Comstock, C. (1985). The nurturing program. Eau Claire: Family Development Resources.

Bertram, R., Blase, K., Shern, D., Shea, P., Fixsen, D. (2011). Policy research brief: Implementation opportunities and challenges for prevention and promotion initiatives. Center for Mental Health Services, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration.

Blanco, D., Alwin, R. (2003). Examining prisoner reentry and the CAA response. National Association for State Community Service Programs, Center for Community Action Research.

Bloom, D., Kemple, J. J., Morris, P., Scrivener, S., Verma, N., Hendra, R., Adams-Ciardullo, D., Seith, D., Walter, J. (2000). The family transition program: Final report on Florida’s initial time-limited welfare program. Pobrane z: http://www.mdrc.org/publications/20/overview.html.

Bloom, D., Redcross, C., Zwieg, J., Azurdia, G. (2007). Transitional jobs for ex-prisoners: Early Impacts from a random assignment evaluation of the Center for Employment Opportunities Prisoner Reentry Program. Working paper. Nowy Jork: MDRC.

Bronte-Tinkew, J., Bowie L., Moore, K. A. (2007). Fathers and public policy. Applied Developmental Science, 11(4), 1–6.

Brotherson, S. E., White, J. M. (red.). (2007). Why fathers count: The importance of fathers and their involvement with children. Harriman: Men’s Studies Press.

Burchinal, L., Hawkes, G., Gardener, B. (1957). The relationship between parental acceptance and adjustment of children. Child Development, 28, 67–77.

Bushway, S. (2003). Reentry and prison work programs. Urban Institute’s Reentry Roundtable. Washington, DC.

Campis, L. K., Lyman, R. D., Prentice-Dunn, S. (1986). The parental locus of control scale: Development and validation. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 15, 260–267.

Coffman, J. (1999). Learning from logic models: An example of a family/school partnership program. Pobrane z: http://www.hfrp.org/publications-resources/browseour-publications/learning-from-logic-models-an-example-of-a-family-school-partnership-program.

Cookston, J. T., Braver, S. L., Griffin, W. A., Deluse, S. R., Miles, J. C. (2006). Effects of the dads for life intervention on interparental conflict and coparenting in the two years after divorce. Family Process, 46(1), 123–137.

Dinkmeyer, K., McKay, G. D. (1982). The parents handbook: Systematic Training for Effective Parenting. Circle Pines: American Guidance Services.

Dinkmeyer, D. S., McKay, G. D. (1983). STEP: Systematic Training Effective Parenting. Circle Pines: American Guidance Service.

Doherty, W. J., Erickson, M. F., LaRossa, R. (2006). An intervention to increase father involvement and skills with infants during the transition to parenthood. Journal of Psychology, 20(3), 438–447.

Dumka, L., Prost, J., Barrera, M., Jr. (2002). The parental relationship and adolescent conduct problems in Mexican American and European American families. Journal of Counseling and Clinical Psychology, 47, 750–759.

Dush, C. M. K., Amato, P. R. (2002). Relationship status, relationship happiness, and psychological well-being. The 64th Annual Conference of the National Council on Family Relations.

Eddy, B. A., Powell, M. J., Szubka, M. H., McCool, M. L., Kuntz, S. (2001). Challenges in research with incarcerated parents and importance in violence prevention. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 20(1), 56–62.

Fixsen, D. L., Naoom, S. F., Blase, K., Friedman, R. M., Wallace, F. (2005). Implementation research: A synthesis of the literature. National Implementation Research Network, University of South Florida, Louis de la Parte Florida Mental Health Institute. Pobrane z: http://nirn.fmhi.usf.edu/ resources/publications/Monograph.

Fixsen, D. L., Blase, K. (2009). Implementation: The missing link between research and practice. Implementation Brief, National Implementation Research Network, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.

Grych, J. H., Seid, M., Fincham, F. D. (1992). Assessing marital conflict from the child’s perspective: The children’s perception of interparental conflict scale. Child Development, 63, 558–572.

Guidabaldi, J., Cleminshaw, H. K. (1985). The development of the Cleminshaw-Guidubaldi Parent Satisfaction Scale. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 14, 293–298.

Hairston, C., Lockett, P. (1985). Parents in prison: A child abuse and neglect prevention strategy. Child Abuse and Neglect, 9, 471–477.

Hairston, C. F. (1991). Families and children: A study of men in prison. Indianapolis: Indiana University School of Social Work.

Hairston, F. (2001). Fathers in prison: Responsible fatherhood and responsible public policies. Marriage and Family Review, 32(3–4), 111–135.

Hamilton, K. (2005). Education behind bars: Marymount Manhattan College teams with volunteers to keep college hopes alive for incarcerated women. Black Issues in Higher Education.

Harrison, K. (1997). Parental training for incarcerated fathers: Effects on attitudes, self-esteem, and children’s self-perceptions. The Journal of Social Psychology, 137(5), 588–593.

Harter, S. (1985). Manual for the self-perception profile for children. Denver: University of Denver. Horner, P. (1974). Dimensions of child behavior as described by parents: A monotonicity analysis. Niepublikowana praca doktorska, Pennsylvania State University, College Park.

Hudson, W. (1982). The clinical measurement package: A field manual. Chicago: Dorsey.

Jaffee, S. R., Caspi, A., Moffitt, T. E. (2001). Predicting early fatherhood and whether young fathers live with their children: Prospective findings and policy reconsiderations. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 42(6), 803–815.

Joseph, J. (1979). Joseph pre-school and primary self concept screening test: Instruction manual. Chicago: Stoetling.

Kalton, G. (1983). Introduction to survey sampling. Londyn: Sage Publications.

Kirby, D. (2007). Emerging answers: Research findings on programs to reduce teen pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases. Washington: National Campaign to Prevent Teen Pregnancy

Lamb, M. E. (1997). Fathers and child development: An introductory overview. W: M. E. Lamb (red.), The role of the father in child development (s. 1–18). Nowy Jork: John Wiley Sons.

Landreth, G. (1991). Play therapy: The art of the relationship. Muncie: Accelerated Development.

Landreth, G. L., Lobaugh, A. F. (1998) Filial therapy with incarcerated fathers: Effects on parental acceptance of child, parental stress, and child adjustment. Journal of Counseling and Development, 76(2), 157–165.

Lanier, C. (2005). Incarcerated fathers: A research agenda. The Family Side of Corrections, 7.

LaRossa, R. (1988). Fatherhood and social change. Family Relations, 37, 451–457.

Lengua, L. J., Rossa, M. W., Schupak-Neuberg, E., Michael, M. L., Berg, C. N., Weschler, L. F. (1992). Using focus groups to guide the development of a parenting program for difficult-toreach, high-risk families. Family Relations, 41, 163–168.

Lerman, R. I. (1993). A national profile of young unwed fathers. W: R. I. Lerman, T. J. Ooms (red.), Young unwed fathers (s. 27–51). Filadefia: Temple University Press.

Lesser, J., Verdugo, R. L., Koniak-Griffin, D., Tello, J., Kappos, B., Cumberland, W. G. (2005). Respecting and Protecting our Relationships: A community research HIV prevention program for teen fathers and mothers. AIDS Education and Prevention, 17(4), 347–360.

Levine, J., Pittinsky, T. (1997). Working fathers. Reading: Addison-Wesley Publishing Company.

Loper, A. B., Turek, E. H. (2006). Parenting programs for incarcerated parents: Current research and future directions. Criminal Justice Policy Review, 17(4), 407–427.

Lowenthal, B., Lowenthal, R. (1997). Teenage parenting: Challenges, interventions, and programs. Childhood Education, 74(1), 29–32.

Magill-Evans, J., Harrison, M. J., Benzies, K., Gierl, M., Kimak, C. (2007). Effects of parenting education on first-time father’s skills in interactions with their infants. Fathering, 5(1), 42–57.

Mahoney, G. J., Powell, A., Finger, I. (1986). The Maternal Behavior Rating Scale. Topics in Early Childhood Special Education, 6, 44–56.

Maiorano, J. J., Futris, T. G. (2005). Fit 2-B FATHERS: The effectiveness of extension programming with incarcerated fathers. Journal of Extension, 43(5) [Online].

Marsiglio, W., Amato, P. R., Day, R. D., Lamb, M. E. (2000). Scholarship on fatherhood in the 1990s and beyond. Journal of Marriage and Family, 62, 1173–1191.

Mazza, C. (2002). Young Dads: The effects of a parenting program on urban African-American adolescent fathers. Adolescence, 37(148), 681–693.

Metz, A. J.R., Bowie, L., Blasé, K. (1997). Seven activities for enhancing the replicability of evidenced-based practices. Washington: Child Trends.

Meyers, S. A. (1993). Adapting parent education programs to meet the needs of fathers: An ecological perspective. Family Relations, 42, 447–452.

McBride, B. A., Mills, G. (1993). A comparison of mother and father involvement with their preschool age children. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 8, 457–477.

McKenry, P. C., Clark, K. A., Stone, G. (1999). Evaluation of a parent education program for divorcing parents. Family Relations, 48(2), 129–137.

Mihalic, S. F. (2003). Blueprints for violence prevention: The identification of effective programs. To be or not to be evidenced-based? Special issue of Data Matters. Washington: National Technical Assistance Center for Children’s Mental Health, Georgetown University.

Miller, D. B. (1997). Adolescent fathers: What we know and what we need to know. Child and Adolescent Social Work Journal, 14(1), 55–69.

Mowbray, C. T., Holter, M. C., Teague, G. B., Bybee, D. (2003). Fidelity criteria: Development, measurement, and validation. American Journal of Evaluation, 24(3), 315–340.

National Women’s Law Center and Center on Fathers, Families, and Public Policy. (2002). Dollars and sense: Improving the determination of child support obligations for low-income mothers, fathers and children. Washington: National Women’s Law Center and the Center on Fathers, Families, and Public Policy.

Nurse, A. (2000). Coming home: The transition from incarcerated to paroled young fathers. W: G. Fox., M. Benson (red.), Families, crime, and criminal justice (Vol. 2) (s. 281–308). Nowy Jork: Elsevier Science.

Palkovitz, J. (2002). Involved fathering and child development: Advancing our understanding of good fathering. W: C. S. Tamis-LeMonda, N. Cabrera (red.), Handbook of father involvement: Multidisciplinary perspectives (s. 119–140). Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Parra-Cardona, J. R., Wampler, R. S., Sharp, E. A. (2006). „Wanting to be a good father”: Experiences of adolescent fathers of Mexican descent in a teen father program. Journal of Marital and Family Therapy, 32(2), 215–231.

Petersilia, J. (2003). When prisoners come home: Parole and prisoner reentry. Nowy Jork: Oxford University Press.

Promising Practices Network. (2007). Promising Practices Network on children, youth, and families. Pobrane z: http://www.promisingpractices.net.

Robbers, M. L.P. (2005). Focus on family and fatherhood: Lessons from Fairfax County’s Responsible Fatherhood Program for Incarcerated Dads. Justice Policy Journal, 2(1).

Roman, C. G., Kane, M. J., Giridharadas, R. (2006). The housing landscape for returning prisoners in the District of Columbia. Washington: Urban Institute Justice Policy Center.

Rossi, P. H., Lipsey, M. W., Freeman, H. E. (2004). Evaluation: A systematic approach. Thousand Oaks: Sage.

Rudel, C. H., Hayes, M. C. (1990). Behind no bars. Children Today, 19, 20–23.

Roy, K. (2004). You can’t eat love: Negotiating provider role expectations for low-income fathers and families. Fathering, 2, 253–276.

Smith, L. (1973). Human development: The first two and one-half years. Costa Mesa: Concept Media.

Smith, L. (1975). Human development: Two and one-half years to six years. Costa Mesa: Concept Media.

Schock, A. M., Gavazzi, S. M. (2004). A multimethod study of father participation in family-based programming. W: R. Day, M. Lamb (red.), Conceptualizing and measuring father involvement (s. 149–185). Mahwah: Erlbaum.

Sorensen, E., Lerman, R. (1998). Welfare reform and low-income noncustodial fathers. Challenge, 41(4), 101–116.

Spoth, R., Redmond, C., Hockaday, C., Yoo, S. (1997). Protective factors and young adolescent tendency to abstain from alcohol use: A model using two waves of intervention study data. American Journal of Community Psychology, 24, 749–770.

Spoth, R., Redmond, C., Shin, C. (1998). Direct and indirect latent parenting outcomes of two universal family-focused preventive interventions: Extending a public health-oriented research base. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 66, 385–399.

Spoth, R., Redmond, C., Shin, C., Lepper, H., Haggerty, K., Wall, M. (1998). Risk moderation of proximal parent-child outcomes of a universal family focused preventive intervention: A test a replication. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 68, 565–579.

Stone, G., McKenry, P. C. (1999). Nonresidential father involvement: A test of a mid-range theory. Journal of Genetic Psychology, 159, 313–336.

Sumner, G., Spietz, A. (red.). (1994). NCAST: Caregiver/Parent-Child Interaction Teaching Manual. Seattle: NCAST Publications.

Talbot, J. A., McHale, J. P. (2004). Individual parental adjustment moderates the relationship between marital and coparenting quality. Journal of Adult Development, 11(3), 191–205.

Tamis-LeMonda, C. S., Cabrera, N. (2002). Cross-disciplinary challenges to the study of father involvement. W: C. S. Tamis-LeMonda, N. Cabrera (red.), Handbook of father involvement: Multidisciplinary perspectives (s. 599–620). Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Teti, D. M., Lamb, M. E. (1986). Sex-role learning and adolescent fatherhood. W: A. B. Elster, M. E. Lamb (red.), Adolescent fatherhood (s. 19–30). Hillsdale: Erlbaum.

The Fatherhood Initiative. (2005). Improving opportunities for low-income fathers. Waszyngton: U.S. Department of Health Human Services.

Travis, J. (2005). They all come back: Facing the challenges of prison reentry. Waszyngton: The Urban Institute Press.

Travis, J., McBride, E. C., Solomon, A. L. (2003). Families left behind: The hidden costs of incarceration and reentry. Waszyngton: Urban Institute, Justice Policy Center.

Turner, R. D. (2007). From behind prison walls: Incarcerated fathers and their children. W: S. E. Brotherson, J. M. White (red.), Why fathers count: The importance of fathers and their involvement with children (s. 263–276). Harriman: Men’s Studies Press.

Unruh, D., Bullis, M., Yovanoff, P. (2003.) Community reintegration outcomes for formerly incarcerated adolescent fathers and nonfathers. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, 11(3), 144–156.

U. S. Department of Health and Human Services. (2006). Promoting responsible fatherhood: Economic stability. Pobrane z: http://fatherhood.hhs.gov/ Stability/index.shtml.

U. S. Department of Health and Human Services. (2008). OFA healthy marriage and promoting responsible fatherhood Initiatives. Pobrane z: http://www. acf.hhs.gov/programs/ofa/hmabstracts/summary.htm.

U. S. Department of Health and Human Services, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. (2007). SAMHSA’s National Registry of Evidence-based Programs and Practices (NREPP). Pobrane z: http://nrepp.samhsa.gov.

W. K. Kellogg Foundation. (2004). Logic model development guide. Pobrane z: http://www.wkkf.org/Pubs/Tools/Evaluation/Pub3669.pdf.


  • There are currently no refbacks.